Royal council, was composed of representatives directly chosen by the king.

At some point, I may try to provide a somewhat more comprehensive overview.

Bernardi, Bernardo, 1985. A central aspect of institutional development in less developed economies is building tax systems capable of raising revenues from broad tax bases, i.e., fiscal capacity. Political institutions in Africa are known to be different from political institutions elsewhere (e.g., Iliffe 2013[2007]; Osafo-Kwaako and Robinson 2013). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to construct an index of socio-political conflict using principal component analysis and measure climatic shocks through deviations from long-term rainfall patterns in a nonlinear (U-shaped) relation, capturing both drought and excessive rainfall. They have no kings and, in the past, usually had no formally appointed chiefs, although there have always been ritual leaders with some degree of political authority. Our findings are consistent with the existence of a self-reinforcing process between conflicts and ethnic cleavages. We show how increasing interaction capacity is related to the transition from transfers to extraction while international competition plays a role only when interaction capacity is already high. It can be regarded as the machine of elites that governs a country which exercised sovereignty in political, social and economic matters, in addition to having exclusive control of the means of violence. Qualitative and quantitative tests show that the two datasets frequently agree about family traits. There is a growing literature documenting a positive relationship between precolonial centralization and current development outcomes (Gennaioli and Rainer, 2007;Michalopoulos and Papaioannou, 2013; ... First, there is the differential geographical endowments argument, which argues that differences in geographical endowments and environmental conditions can cause ethnic inequalities to form and persist over time (Alesina et al., 2016;Michalopoulos, 2012;Sachs and Malaney, 2002).
If the distribution of power is very concentrated, the society is absolutist. We suggest that three key interlinked In column 3 of Table 4, the significant estimated coefficient of the political centralization variable suggests that different political structures matter in mediating climate-induced conflict. The model shows that an equilibrium with an inefficient state is more likely to arise when there is greater inequality between the rich and the poor, when bureaucratic rents take intermediate values and when individuals are sufficiently forward-looking. While Africa’s economies too are now growing, in many African countries, people are just now returning to the levels of per capita income they enjoyed more than a half century ago. To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors. In the Shadow of Violence: The Problem of Development for Limited Access Order Societies (with Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis, and Steven B. Webb). Strikingly, through 1989, thirty of thirty-two ethnic group-level major civil war onsets occurred in countries with a PCS group. Matching ethnographic data on the pre-colonial political organization of African indigenous groups to contemporary data on ethnic groups in conflict, I investigate the relationship between the traditional organization of ethnic groups and ethnic civil wars in Africa after decolonization. In part, this must be seen in the context of certain perennial limitations – notably, environmental and economic challenges and uneven demographic spread – on the scope and scale of revolutionary warfare in Africa that slowed the rate of change, and indeed prevented wholesale internal reform in some cases. In a stateless society, there is no central authority; it is divided among two centers of opposition rather than one authoritative figure. Brewer, John, 1988. Next, we show that the evidence is also broadly consistent with the implication of the model that paramilitaries tend to persist to the extent that they deliver votes to candidates for the executive whose preferences are close to theirs and that this effect is larger in areas where the Presidential candidate would have otherwise not done as well. Bantu Bureaucracy: A Century of Political Evolution Among the Basoga of Uganda. Puis sont passés en revue plusieurs exemples d'importation, à partir du dixseptième siècle, de véhicules à roues en provenance d'Europe. Bantu Bureaucracy: A Century of Political Evolution Among the Basoga of Uganda. There is a stark relation between the centralized political system and extractive institutions, and segmentary political system and inclusive governing institutions. Tribes are larger and more settled than bands, but they still lack any overall form of centralized political authority. Scholars have increasingly neglected this period, however, placing ever greater emphasis on modern conflict at the expense of deeper understanding of the role and impact of warfare in Africa’s past. This paper shows that South Africa experienced a reversal of fortunes after the arrival of European settlers in the eastern half of the country.

By discussing these works together, this essay explores what, if any, new developments have taken place in the historiography of firearms in colonial and pre-colonial Africa. How can one characterise political authority in Africa between ca. The economic and political effects of linguistic diversity have been the subject of scholarly research in both political science and economics for over a halfcentury, and many of the literature’s seminal entries are case studies of the African continent.

Using a recent and original data set, we examine the characteristics of core state economic agencies and the growth records of a sample of 35 developing countries for the 1970-1990 period. In fact, Africa has experienced recurring periods of growth, and this paper reviews some of these growth “spurts” to substantiate that claim. Additionally, the effects of extractive and inclusive governing institutions on both societies will be analyzed. We find a robust and significant curvilinear (U-shaped) relationship between rainfall deviations and conflict intensity, which tends to be stronger in agro-ecological zones that are least resilient to climatic variability (such as Guinean savannah) and where (pre-) colonial political structures were less centralized.

“Self-Enforcing Federalism,” (with Rui J.P. de Figueiredo, Jr.).

... Other scholars downplay the influence of European explanations on state development in Africa.
However, distant citizens are less likely than their urban peers to translate service dissatisfaction into discontent with their government; distant citizens have more trust in government and more positive evaluations of both local and national officials. The result also holds when limiting the analysis on those individuals residing near pairs of adjacent ethnic homelands with a different legacy of pre-colonial centralization. Request the article directly from the authors on ResearchGate. The evidence suggests that the continent's slow growth can be explained in an international cross-country framework, without the need to invoke a special explanation unique to Sub-Saharan Africa. On the other hand, political institutions that distribute power broadly allow there to be a broad coalition of governing groups. We find that stronger constraints on the executive foster the impartiality of tax systems. We find that stronger constraints on the executive foster the impartiality of tax systems. "Capitalism, Democracy, and Countermajoritarian Institutions," Supreme Court Economic Review, (2015) 23:255-77. groups would aggressively contest the power of the new unitary state. The focus is more on tests and confidence intervals derived from tests than on estimators. L'autorité est fondamentalement égale pour tous, mais elle est différemment exercée dans les diverses fonctions de classe. We show new evidence that the consequences of historical warfare for state development differ for Sub-Saharan Africa. The whole British Empire was involved in the Second World War from its outset. C'est dans le cadre des fonctions de classe que chaque individu peut développer ses talents et atteindre une influence personnelle. However, our ethnicity fixed-effects specifications show that differences in countrywide institutional arrangements do not explain differences in regional economic performance within ethnic groups. However, if we take the equilibrium response of other municipalities into account, the median would instead increase to 68%, a sizable change driven by equilibrium network effects. Their economic policies exploited Africans which only increased the inequality between the European colonizers and the Africans. The Empire/Commonwealth and the Second World War. "Order, Disorder, and Economic Change: Latin America vs. North America," (with Douglass C. North and William Summerhill) in Bruce Bueno de Mesquita and Hilton Root, eds., Governing for Prosperity. Bien entendu, des situations existent où des combinaisons de deux, ou même de tous les trois, de ces types principaux de sanctions, ou encore des types intermédiaires, sont appliquées.Au cours de son analyse, l'auteur reconnaît et déceit quatre types généraux de société: le premier, tel que les Tallensi, où l'autorité est exercée seulement sur, et par l'intermédiaire des groupes apparentés; un autre, où les groupes apparentés agissent en coopération avec des associations de diverses sortes, dont certaines sont essentiellement des groupes cultuels, et d'autres sont séculiers; quelques-uns exerçant un contrôle uniquement sur leurs propres membres, d'autres ayant un rayon d'autorité plus étendu. We also document that the link between precolonial political centralization and regional development, as captured by satellite images of light density at night, is particularly strong in areas outside the vicinity of the capitals, where due to population mixing and the salience of national institutions ethnic traits play a lesser role. Bates, Robert H., 1983. Historically, no society had the types of institutions required for modern economic growth, though a few had elements of them for quite long periods. The stateless society serves as a system of checks and balances based on a lineage system. Using new survey data from Nigeria, a significant negative association between precolonial centralization and access to certain public services is observed. For example, the economic divergence that took place in the Americas during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is now seen as deeply rooted in the different institutional structures created during the colonial period (Bruhn and Gallego 2012; Dell 2010; Engerman and Sokoloff 1997, 2011). Alesina et al., 1999; Alesina et al., 2003; Ahlerup and Olsson, 2011; Caselli and Coleman II, 2013; Alesina et al., 2015). While the mechanisms driving these patterns are complex, I use historical evidence to suggest that the negative association may be partly driven by centralized regions whose leaders failed to comply with the autocratic federal regime, and whose jurisdictions may have been subsequently punished by underinvestment in these services, with impacts lasting until today.

Among African groups in Murdock's Atlas, the correlations between dependence on agriculture and pastoralism, on the one hand, and political centralization, on the other, are quite small (0.05 and 0.12, respectively). Early entries in political science (e.g. "The Democratic Advantage: The Institutional Sources of State Power in International Competition" (with Kenneth A. Schultz). Indeed, the capacity to collect revenues is at the heart of state formation and is indispensable for the provision of public goods and investments in infrastructure (e.g., Osafo-Kwaako and. The model is premised on the idea that paramilitaries may choose to and can influence elections. Our results are consistent with the view that precolonial centralization shaped the success of modernization policies in Africa by reducing policy capture by local elites. We use data on education, health, and public works at a provincial


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