given permission to protect himself with bodyguards. This was followed by the rule of Alexander the Great, which was a time of remarkable growth for the Greek people. See The Renaissance was a re-discovery of what was going on in 4th century Athens and emancipated European culture from the dark ages. of government he created included two Kings, five ephors (executives), a council of thirty elders and a general assembly which was made up of all male citizens. His reforms include the annual rotation of power (so no single group or person could become dominant) and the splitting up of the four tribes of Athens into ten new tribes which were then broken up into smaller demes (municipalities) which were then spread around so that it was more difficult for the old families to organize into a political faction. Under So in other words it did not mean he was a bad guy.

Gods. He opened his own school the Lyceum and went on to become the tutor Hipparchus was assassinated in 514 and Hippias was expelled from Athens in 514, returning in 490 BC when the Persians (unsuccessfully) invaded punished by Zeus and forced to marry the unattractive Hephaestus. held out for three days before being overwhelmed and killed.

with the other Greeks in the Aegean. by all their enemies and even some of their 'friends'.

Their victories were turned to prose by poets like Pindar so that even today we know their names and exploits. imperialists and turned the ancient world against her in a way


(Just imagine the US declaring war and invading Costa Rica).

Even running Solon She would then speak in With the threat from the east gone Athens begins a fifty year period under the brilliant statesman Pericles (495-429 BC) during which time the Parthenon was built on the Acropolis and the city becomes the artistic, cultural and intellectual as well as commercial center of the Hellenic world, attracting all sorts of smart and interesting people and taking command of the other Greek states. The Delphic Games like the Olympic games harnessed the competitive spirit of the Greeks and helped create and sustain an ethnic and cultural identity which two thousand years later became a national (and international) identity.

success. The Spartans had not always lived in such a society.

When many of us envision what it was like during that time, we have certain expectations.

other and the period is a series of wars and changing On land the Greeks could not agree on the best way to fight the Persians. The Athenians of the 5th Century used his deeds as the standards to measure themselves and their democracy. Most of his work is known through ancient descriptions and Roman copies.

Told by the Oracle that his laws would make Sparta famous, he returned to convince first his influential friends and eventually all the Spartans that his reforms will bring power and glory to Sparta. Her box unleashed all the evils that were to afflict

The cause of the Peloponnesian War (from 431 to 404

fought amongst themselves, sometimes turning what could have been His exploits also include adventures with Hercules, Jason and the Argonauts, the Amazons and even a journey to the underworld. Three years later he tried again by marrying a young girl from another leading aristocratic family but she left him for not fulfilling his matrimonial duties and Pisistratus left for Thrace where he focused on amassing more wealth by digging for silver and gold. goal was to learn to be brave and strong. by the Athenian army. high and diverse levels of achievement that many classical scholars Though the word tyrant in our culture brings up images of Nazis, secret police and torture chambers it actually means a leader who was not restrained by law or constitution, nor was he elected, chosen or born into power. Though he left no writings of his own, he is mostly known through

was hundred Athenians were sent to the island to re-colonize it.

Because the helots did all the work the Spartans had plenty of time for leisure and it is a myth that they spent every free moment in training. Just as important in the creating (That's why they are 26 miles. But eventually to be considered a Greek meant to live and act as a Greek particularly by engaging in competition with other Greeks. The Spartans would not pursue and slaughter a retreating enemy, considering such behavior disgraceful and not befitting a true warrior.

lucid and evocative writer. There were also many shrines in Greece where one could supposedly have direct contact with the gods, similar to the experience at Delphi.

Hermes was the God of commerce, wealth, and oratory and

in the early Renaissance and gave us the music that we are familiar with today, just as the rediscovery of the other aspects of classical Greece inspired the artists, poets, writers, philosophers and architects of the 15th and 16th Centuries.

alliances. He was also the God of light, both physical and spiritual. law if you could not pay your debt, the person you owed money to could seize you and your family and sell you as slaves to get his money back. refer to the phenomenon as “the Greek miracle”. The lowest class was called the thetes (laborers) who could take part in the general assembly but they could not run for office. These helots were no more than serfs and worked the land for the Spartans. The Golden Age of Greece, also referred to as the Classical Period, took place in Greece in the 5th and 4th Centuries B.C.

In 561 Pisistratus, the leader of the Beyond the Hills faction from eastern Attica and a remarkable orator, showed up in the agora with his clothes ripped and bleeding and told the Athenians he had been attacked by his enemies.

A Spartan King named Leonidas wa sent with his Royal Guard of 300 men to delay the Persians at a narrow pass at Thermopylae where they Rather than withdraw they decide to escalate (or as we might say now surge). This era is marked by the fall of the age of tyranny in Athens, when Peisistratus, a known tyrant, died in roughly 528 B.C. The Spartans who were founded by Lycurgus around 800 BC were known for their militaristic society. In 478 the Delian League is formed by Athens and its allies on the island of Delos, the sacred island of Apollo. In other words some who thought he was innocent still voted to have him executed, pointing out early problems of democracy that are still with us today, (that people are either stupid or not paying attention.) The Greek poet Hesiod was the first to refer to five ages of human history, four of which he named after the metals gold, silver, bronze, and iron. The three groups were the Men of the Shore, the Men of the Plain and the Men from Beyond the Hills. The theatre in Delos, where a whisper from center stage easily literature.

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